The approaches to the creation of ecological maps of the estimation and prognosis-recommendation type

N. P. Ogar, E. I. Rachkovskaya



In the last years applied cartographic works are much in demand for creation of different projects of environment protection. In this connection the modern branch of thematic cartography—ecological cartography—began to develope actively from 1989 in Geobotanical Department of the Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction of Kazakhstan Academy of Sciences. V. B. Sochava has foreseen appearance of this cartographic branch and considered it as constructive one. Creation of the estimation and prognostic-recommendation maps may be based only on fundamental elaboration of the integrating modern knowledge of natural-territorial complexes—ecosystems. In presented series of maps the Map of ecosystems is the main inventory map (Fig. 1). It has been compiled in 1 : 25 000 scale on the base of aerial photographs and detailed route investigations of the area. The mapping unit is an elementary ecosystem including vegetation, soil and orography. The following stage of ecological mapping is the estimation of modern state of the area and creation of the series of estimation maps. Compiling the Map of anthropogenic transformation of ecosystems (Fig. 2) is the important stage in ecological analysis of the area. All anthropogenic factors were revealed when estimating the modern state of every ecosystem in the map; the character of the influence was determined (natural, anthropogenic, anthropogenic-stimulated); trends of the processes were fixed (salinization, inundation, desertification); degree of transformations was revealed (areal, point, linear); duration of the influence was determined. The following indices of vegetation digression were used: participation of weeds in plant communities; successional stage in transformation series; decreasing of the projective cover degree by comparison with analogous undisturbed plant community. The other type of estimation maps is the Map of ecosystem stability (Fig. 3). Working out the criteria of ecosystem stability to natural and anthropogenic factors and their cartographic interpretation are very important. We regarded separately: species stability (biological activity, seed and vegetative reproduction; revegetation capacity; ecological amplitude), stability of plant communities (structure of the layers, sinusia, biohorizons, species biodiversity). Creation of the series of prognostic-recommendation maps for different scenarios of natural use is possible on the base of the above types of maps. Such map (Fig. 4), necessary for cable laying with a help of trench excavator, for building of subsidiary apartments and making the road net, has been made. The legend contains the optimal data of the works depending on passing possibility of transport. The special attention is paid to plant communities which are in need a strengthened protection (rare types of plant communities, endemic species).

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How to cite

Ogar N. P., Rachkovskaya E. I. 1999. The approaches to the creation of ecological maps of the estimation and prognosis-recommendation type // Geobotanical mapping 1997. St. Petersburg. P. 14–27.