Classification of communities with alien species on the South Urals. III. Communities with Bidens frondosa, Hordeum jubatum and Urtica cannabina

L. M. Abramova, Ya. M. Golovanov



The Republic of Bashkortostan is located between 51°34′ –56 °10′  N and 53°10′ — 59°59′  E, its length from the north to the south — 550 km, from the west to the east — 450 km. The territory of Bashkortostan consists of three main natural regions (provinces): the Bashkir Cis-Urals (about 65 % of the area), the South Urals (29 %) and the Bashkir Trans-Urals (6 %). These areas differ not only by the natural conditions (topography, climate, soil, vegetation, etc.), but also by their level of economic development.

Currently, an expansion and naturalization of a number of North American alien species of the family Asteraceae Dumort. of the genera Ambrosia L., Xanthium L., Bidens L., Galinsoga Ruiz & Pav., Cyclachaena Fresen. etc. (Abramova, 2011, 2012, 2014, 2015) are observed in the Republic of Bashkortostan. Since 1990th of XX century we conduct a geobotanical research of communities with alien species.

The article represents the third part of series of publications devoted to the classification of communities with alien species in the South Urals. The results of vegetation classification of communities with species from the gene­ra Ambrosia L., Cyclachaena (Nutt.) Fresen and Xanthium L.  were published earlier (Abramova, 2011, 2015). In this article the communities with participation of three aggressive alien species such as: Bidens frondosa L., Hordeum jubatum L. and Urtica cannabina L. are presented. Two of them— Bidens frondosa and Hordeum jubatum — are included in “The black book of flora of the Central Russia” (Vinogradova, et al., 2010), and they are invasive species of many regions of Russia, and the third – Urtica cannabina — an invasive species of the South Urals (Abramova, 2014). As a result of the carried-out classification a Prodrome of communities is made, the synoptic table of syntaxa is given.

The wide distribution of alien species over the region and their naturalization in the disturbed steppe communities of the South Urals is noted. 72 reléves of communities on the plots of 4–100 m² were made in the centers of invasion. Classification of communities with a presence of these alien species is carried out by the Braun-Blanquet method with use of a deductive method of Kopecký–Hejný (Kopecký, Hejný, 1974). The allocated syntaxa were compared to units which are earlier described in the Republic of Bashkortostan and other regions (Yamalov et al., 2012; Vegetace …, 2009, 2011; etc.).

A variety of communities with participation of Bidens frondosa is presented by 1 association Polygonetum hydropiperis Passarge 1965 and 2 derivate communities Bidens frondosa [Bidentetea tripartitae/Stellarietea mediae] and Bidens frondosa [Galio-Urticetea]. A  variety of communities with participation of Hordeum jubatum includes a new association Polygono avicularisHordeetum jubati Abramova & Golovanov ass. nov. and a derivate community Hordeum jubatumJuncus gerardii [ScorzoneroJuncetea gerardii]. A variety of communities with participation of Urtica cannabina is presented by derivate communities Urtica cannabina [Artemisietea vulgaris] and Urtica cannabina–Artemisia austriaca [Polygono–Artemisietea austriacae]. Communities belong to 6 classes of vegetation: Stellarietea mediae, Bidentetea tripartitae, Galio-Urticetea, Polygono aenastriPoëtea annuae, PolygonoArtemisietea austriacae and Scorzonero–Juncetea gerardii. New association is allocated for the most typical communities with Hordeum jubatum only.

Wide dispersal of alien species in the region and their naturalization in the floodplains of the South Urals was noticed. Ecological spectrum of communities with alien species Bidens frondosa, Hordeum jubatum and Urtica cannabina is very wide including communities from wet floodplain communities to dry habitats of the Trans-Urals and at the different successional stages — from pioneer annual communities to grass communities. Invasion of these alien types in synanthropic, semi-natural and natural communities causes the formation the communities with a dominance of alien species.

Key words: invasion, alien species, vegetation classification

Section: Articles

How to cite

Abramova L. M., Golovanov Ya. M. 2016. Classification of communities with alien species on the South Urals. III. Communities with Bidens frondosa, Hordeum jubatum and Urtica cannabina // Vegetation of Russia. N 28. P. 13–27.

Received December 17 2015


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