Aquatic and shore vegetation of Talovskoye lake and its surroundings (Koryak district, Kamchatka Territory)

V. Yu. Neshataev, V. Yu. Neshatayeva, V. V. Yakubov



Aquatic and semi-aquatic communities of Koryak national district are so far studied very poorly. Only B. Tikhomirov (1935) had cited few data on the aquatic vegetation of Penzhina River basin. This paper presents an analysis of 68 relevés (obtained in 2011–2016) of aquatic, littoral and shore vegetation in the surroundings of Talovskoye lake, the largest lake of the Parapolskiy dol area (Penzhinskiy district, Kamchatka Territory). The plant community classification was elaborated using the Russian school dominant-determinant approach. The vegetation of water area and lake shores is referred to Potamogetonetion, Limoselletion, Phragmitetion vegetation types; that of flood-plain terraces to Festucetion pratensis and Salicetion. 23 formations and 30 associations (including 2 new ones) were characterized. The vegetation cover of Talovskoye lake and its surroundings is low in species number and community diversity. Oligotrophic communities, widely spread around Northern Eurasia, predominate.

Oligotrophic species are abundant in the aquatic communities while oligomesotrophic and mesotro­phic ones prevailed in oxbows and flood-plain lakes. The high abundance of Arctophila fulva, Batrachium trichophyllum, Callitriche palustris, Caltha palustris subsp. sibirica, C. natans, Deschampsia komarovii, Eleocharis acicularis, Glyceria lithuanica, Hippuris vulgaris, Limosella aquatica, Myriophyllum verticillatum, Persicaria lapathifolia, Potamogeton gramineus, Ranunculus gmelinii, R. reptans, Sparganium angustifolium, S. emersum, S. hyperboreum, S. natans, Subularia aquatica is common in seasonally drained sites of the lake bottom.

The shores of small-size lakes (250–300 m in diameter) are usually low and swampy. Hydrophyte vegetation is represented by pondweed (Potamogeton gramineus, P. perfoliatus) and bur-reed communities (Sparganium emersum, S. angustifolium, S. hyperboreum). The onshore helophyte communities dominated by Carex rhynchophysa, C. rostrata, Comarum palustre, Eriophorum polystachyon, Hippuris vulgaris, and Menyanthes trifoliata form narrow strips.

Underdeveloped aquatic and semi-aquatic littoral vegetation is character for medium-size lakes (300–700 м in diameter). The helophyte border (up to 3 m wide) is well developed along the whole lake shore line. Sometimes the swampy shores and quagmires with the predominance of Menyanthes trifoliata are met; occasionally the stretches of boggy shores with the predominance of cotton grass (Eriophorum)–Sphagnum-rich communities occur. The lakes of medium-size are filled by well-developed aquatic and littoral ve­getation. About 30 % of shoreline is occupied by wide (10 m wide and more) helophyte stripe formed by the thickets of Equisetum fluviatile, Arctophila fulva, Cicuta virosa, Comarum palustre, Carex rhynchophysa, C. rostrata. The hydrophyte communities­ are made by pondweeds (Potamogeton gramineus, P. perfoliatus), Myriophyllum verticillatum, sometimes by Utricularia intermedia, U. macrorhiza that formed thickets in the water profile. On the lake shores, lowland grass meadows with the predominance of Arctophila fulva, Glyceria lithuanica, Deschampsia komarovii occurred as well as shrubby willow thickets (Salix pulchra). Grass meadows (Calamagrostis purpurea subsp. langsdorffii) and large-sedge communities are common on the lake shores.

The large-size lakes (more than 700 m in diameter) have the vast areas of shallow water. These are the ­areas of littoral helophyte communities. Monodominant thickets of Arctophila fulva and Equisetum fluviatile occupy the shallow waters rich by organic matter. On seasonally drained clay and sandy loam bottoms, Senecio palustris predominates. Along the shores wide strips of sedge hummocks (Carex appendiculata) stretched alternating with the patches of swampy sedge communities (C. cryptocarpa, C. rostrata) with admixture of Cicuta virosa. Further from the lake shores, the flooded grass meadows and shrub willow thickets are common. The long-drained lake basins are occupied by Arctophila fulva, sedge communities and hygrophilous herbs. Floodplain grass-rich meadows (Calamagrostis purpurea subsp. langsdorffii, Glyceria lithuanica, Deschampsia komarovii) and hummocky sedge communities (Carex appendiculata) covered the low shores of Talovskoye lake. The vast shallow water zone adjoined to the shores is occupied by the monodominant helophytic communities (Arctophila fulva, Caltha natans, Hippuris vulgaris, Equisetum fluviatile) and hydrophytic communities dominated by Sparganium emersum, S. angustifolium, S. hyperboreum, S. natans, Potamogeton gramineus, P. perfoliatus, Myriophyllum verticillatum and others. The Lake is surrounded by shrubby willow thickets (Salix pulchra) with the grass layer formed by Calamagrostis purpurea subsp. langsdorffii, Rubus arcticus, Carex cryptocarpa.

The survey of the vegetation units of Talovskoye lake and its surroundings had revealed 4 vegetation types, 23 formations and 30 associations, according to dominant-determinant approach. There are communities of 19 formations and 21 associations on the waters of the Lake and on its drained bottom; of 2 formations and 5 associations in the floodplain ponds and oxbows; of 2 formations and 4 associations on the low lakeside terraces.

Hygromesophyte grass meadows (Calamagrostis purpurea subsp. langsdorffii) and hygrophyte sedge and grass stands (Glyceria lithuanica, Carex appendiculata) formed the plant cover of low terraces. There are also communities of willow shrubs (Salix pulchra) which are not discussed in the present paper.

The main characteristic features of the syntaxonomic composition of the aquatic, littoral and shore vegetation of Talovskoye lake are the absence of numerous syntaxa that are common for the Kamchatka Peninsula: nymphaea (Nupharetosa) and free-floating aquatic vegetation (Lemnetosa minoris); communities of underwater rooting spore-bearing plants (Isoёtоsa). The low community diversity of submerged rooted plants (Potamogetonetosum) is noticed. So, in Talovskoye lake several pondweed formations (Potamogetoneta pectinati, Ppusilli, Ppraelongi, Pfriesii) widely spread in Eurasia and Kamchatka Peninsula, were not found.

Two new syntaxa — Deschampsietum komarovii ranunculosum gmelinii and Glycerietum lithuanicae deschampsiosum komarovii — are suggested for the damp meadows with the predominance of Deschampsia komarovii and Glyceria lithuanica. The communities formed by D. komarovii are endemic for the north of the Far East. The lack of the published relevѐs of these communities confirmed their poor knowledge. Glyceria lithuanica has Eurasiatic areal but it is rarely recorded as edificator. In some regions of the European Russia, this species, considered as the very rare, is included into regional Red Data Books (Skvortsov et al., 2000). The main part of formations and associations found for Talovskoye lake and its surroundings had large distribution areas due to the wide geographical distribution of the dominants and the similarity of the ecological conditions of aquatic and littoral habitats of different regions of Northern Eurasia. The formation Deschampsieta komarovii is considered to be endemic for the North of the Far East.

Unusually dry season of 2016 allowed describing the communities of herbaceous annuals (ephemeras). They were assigned to the special vegetation type Limoselletion. A new class of formations Callitrichetosa palustris, united the aquatic communities with the predominance of rooting perennial amphibian plants adapted to periodic drying, is distinguished. Together with the communities of annual hygrophytes, it corresponds to the alliance Eleocharition acicularis Pietsch ex Dierßen 1975 (Dierßen, 1996; Šumberová, 2011; Šumberová et al., 2011a, b). The resemblance of a large part of syntaxa of aquatic and semi-aquatic communities in two classifications may be explained by their mono- or oligodominance and low species diversity.

Key words: aquatic vegetation, shore vegetation, classification, Talovskoye lake, Koryak district, Kamchatka Territory.

Section: Articles

How to cite

Neshataev V.  Yu., Neshataeva V. Yu., Yakubov V. V. 2017. Aquatic and shore vegetation of Talovskoye lake and its surroundings (Koryak district, Kamchatka Territory) // Vegetation of Russia. N 31. P. 59–76.

Received February 27 2017


Dierßen K. 1996. Vegetation Nordeuropas. Stuttgart. 838 S. 

Skvortsov V. E., Grigoryeva O. V., Cherednichenko O. V. 2000. Redkiye i okhranyayemyye rasteniya severa Evro­peyskoy Rossii [Rare and endangered plants of the North of European Russia] // Atlas-opredelitel sosudistykh rasteniy tayezhnoy zony Evropeyskoy Rossii [Atlas and keys of vascular plants of taiga zone of European Russia]. Moscow. P. 549–574. (In Russian).

Šumberová K. 2011. Vegetace vodních rostlin zakořeněných ve dně (Potametea) // Chytrý M. (ed.). Vegetace České republiky. Vol. 3. Vodní a mokřadní vegetace. Praha. S. 100–247.

Šumberová K., Hájková P., Chytrý M., Hroudová Z., Sád­lo J., Hájek M., Hrivnák R., Navrátilová J., Hanáková P., Ekrt L., Ekrtová E. 2011a. Vegetace rákosin a vysokých ostrřic (Phragmito–Magno-Caricetea) // Chytrý M. (ed.). Vegetace České republiky. Vol. 3. Vodní a mokřadní vegetace. Praha. S. 385–579.

Šumberová K., Navrátilová J., Čtvrtlíková M., Hájek M., Bauer P. 2011b. Vegetace oligotrofních vod (Littorelletea uniflorae) // Chytrý M. (ed.) Vegetace České republiky. Vol. 3. Vodní a mokřadní vegetace. Praha. S. 268–308.

Tikhomirov B. A. 1935. Kratkiy ocherk dolinnoy rastitel­nosti Penzhinskogo rayona [A brief essay of the valley vegetation of Penzhinskiy district] // Trudy Dalnevostochnogo Filiala Akademii Nauk SSSR [Proceedings of the Far-Eastern branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences]. Ser. Bot. Vol. I. P. 85–112. (In Russian).